"Human-centered design: A cultural necessity." Collection 3, 2011.

Klaus Krippendorff

This paper draws on a recently published history of paradigmatic design problems. It argues that we are in transition from a culture that was dominated by science (modernism) and the belief in the goodness of technology, to a culture that, while ushered in by information technologies, recognizes design as a human virtue and as its primary organizing feature (constructivism). To this end, it offers several propositions of an epistemologically informed and, hence, human-centered approach to design. It culminates in a sketch of what design education should and can contribute to this new culture.